SNAPSHOT OF INDICATORS
Summary of the sample design for PMA2017/Niger:
In Niger, the Performance Monitoring and Accountability (PMA2020) survey collects data in Niamey for the estimation of key indicators to monitor progress in family planning both at the population and facility level. PMA2016/Niamey-R3, the third round of data collection in Niamey, used a sampling strategy stratified by Niamey's five communes. A sample of 33 enumeration areas (EA) was drawn from the fourth General Census of Population and Housing (RGPH) conducted by Niger’s National Statistics Institute (INS) in 2012. For each EA, 35 households were selected. A random start method was used to systematically select households within the EA.
Eligible females of reproductive age (15-49 years) living in selected households were contacted and consented for interviews. A total of 1,099 households (97.5% response rate) and 1,10 women (97.7% response rate) completed interviews, along with 27 service delivery points, of which 23 are public (90% response rate). Data collection was conducted between November to December 2016.
The sample was powered to generate estimates of all women modern contraceptive prevalence rate (mCPR) at 3% margin of error.
Round 1 Sample Design
For the second round of data collection in Niamey, the PSUs of the PMA Niger survey are enumeration areas (EAs) obtained from the RGPH conducted by Niger’s National Statistics Institute (INS) in 2012. The sampling frame is made up of PSUs, which themselves are made up of 3 to 5 EA. These PSUs are divided up among Niamey's 5 communes according to size. Thirty-three PSUs were selected using probability proportional to size (PPS) among these strata. Once the PSUs were selected, EAs within each PSU that were too small (<150 households) were regrouped with contiguous EAs. In the event that the EA was too large (≥ 600 households), it was divided into smaller segments and one segment was randomly selected using PPS to the size of the segment.
In each selected EA cluster, households and private health facilities were listed and mapped. Field supervisors randomly selected 35 households from the household listing using a random start method. A household roster was completed and all eligible women age 15-49 in selected households were approached and asked to provide informed consent to participate in the study.
For the SDP survey, up to three private SDPs, including pharmacies, within each sampled EA cluster boundary were randomly selected from the listing. In addition, three public health SDPs (lowest, second-lowest and third-lowest level) designated to serve each EA population were selected.
Round 3 Sample Update
For the third round of data collection in Niamey, the primary sampling units (PSUs) of the PMA Niger survey are enumeration areas (EAs) obtained from the RGPH conducted by Niger’s National Statistics Institute (INS) in 2012. The sampling frame is made up of PSUs, which themselves are made up of 3 to 5 EA. These PSUs are divided up among Niamey's 5 communes according to size. Thirty-three PSUs were selected using probability proportional to size (PPS) among these strata. Once the PSUs were selected, EAs within each PSU that were too small (<150 households) were regrouped with contiguous EAs. In the event that the EA was too large (≥ 600 households), it was divided into smaller segments and one segment was randomly selected using PPS to the size of the segment.
In each selected EA cluster, households and private health facilities were listed and mapped. Field supervisors randomly selected 35 households from the household listing using a random start method. A household roster was completed and all eligible women age 15-49 in selected households were approached and asked to provide informed consent (and assent if aged 15-17 years) to participate in the study.
PMA2020 uses standardized questionnaires to gather data about households, individual females, and service delivery points that are comparable across program countries and consistent with existing national surveys. Prior to launching the survey in each country, local experts review and modify these questionnaires to ensure all questions are appropriate to each setting. Three questionnaires were used to collect PMA2016/Niamey-R3 survey data: the household questionnaire, the female questionnaire and the service delivery point questionnaire.
The household, female and service delivery point questionnaires were based on model surveys designed by PMA2020 staff at the Bill & Melinda Gates Institute for Population and Reproductive Health of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, the Niger Institut National de la Statistique (INS), and fieldwork materials of the Niger Demographic and Health Survey (DHS).
All PMA2020 questionnaires are administered using Open Data Kit (ODK) software and Android smartphones. The PMA2016/Niamey-R3 questionnaires were in French on the phone. The interviews were conducted in French or often translated orally into Haussa, Djerma, or other local languages depending on respondent preferences. Female resident enumerators (data collectors) in each enumeration area (EA) administered the household and female questionnaires in the selected households and the SDP questionnaire for sampled private SDPs. Field supervisors administered the SDP questionnaire in public SDPs.
The household questionnaire gathers basic information about the household, such as ownership of livestock and durable goods, as well as characteristics of the dwelling unit, including wall, floor and roof materials, water sources, and sanitation facilities. This information is used to construct a wealth index.
The first section of the household questionnaire, the household roster, lists basic demographic information about all usual members of the household and visitors who stayed with the household the night before the interview. This roster is used to identify eligible respondents for the female questionnaire. In addition to the roster, the household questionnaire also gathers data that are used to measure key water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) indicators, including regular sources and uses of WASH facilities used and prevalence of open defecation by household members.
The female questionnaire is used to collect information from all women age 15 to 49 who were listed on the household roster at selected households. The female questionnaire gathers specific information on: education; fertility and fertility preferences; family planning access, choice and use; quality of family planning services; and exposure to family planning messaging in the media.
The SDP questionnaire collected information about the provision and quality of reproductive health services and products, integration of health services, and water and sanitation within the SDP.
The PMA2016/Niamey-R3 fieldwork training was held in the fall of 2016 and was led by PMA staff within the Niger Institut National de la Statistique (INS) project staff. Field supervisors then became the trainers for subsequent resident enumerator (RE) training sessions.
Throughout the four-day refresher training, REs and supervisors were evaluated based on their performance on several written and phone-based assessments, mock field exercises and class participation. The RE training sessions were conducted primarily in French, whereas small group sessions were all conducted in the local languages predominantly spoken in the selected EAs.
Data Collection & Processing
Data collection was conducted between November and December 2016. Unlike traditional paper-and-pencil surveys, PMA2020 uses ODK Collect, an open-source software application, to collect data on mobile phones. All the questionnaires were programmed using this software and installed onto all project smartphones. The ODK questionnaire forms are programmed with automatic skip-patterns and built-in response constraints to reduce data entry errors.
The ODK application enabled REs and supervisors to collect and transfer survey data to a central ODK Aggregate cloud server. This instantaneous aggregation of data also allowed for concurrent data processing and course corrections while PMA2020 was still active in the field. Throughout data collection, the central staff at INS in Niger and the data manager at the Bill & Melinda Gates Institute at Johns Hopkins School of Public Health in Baltimore, Maryland routinely monitored the incoming data and notified field staff of any potential errors, missing data or problems found with form submissions on the central server.
The use of mobile phones combined data collection and data entry into one step; therefore, data entry was completed when the last interview form was uploaded at the end of data collection in December. Once all data were on the server, data analysts cleaned and de-identified the data, applied survey weights and prepared the final dataset for analysis using Stata statistical software.
This table shows response rates for household and female respondents by residence (rural/urban) for PMA2016/Niamey Round 3. A total of 1,085 households were selected for the PMA2016 survey; 1,061 households were found to be occupied at the time of the fieldwork. 1,030 of the occupied households (97.1%) consented to a household-level interview. The response rate for the household level was higher in the rural (98.6%) relative to the urban (97.1%) enumeration areas (EAs).
In the occupied households that provided an interview, a total of 1,321 eligible women aged 15 to 49 years were identified. Overall, 98.3% of the eligible women were available and consented to the interview. The female response rate was higher in the rural (99.0%) relative to the urban (98.3%) EAs. Only de facto females are included in the analyses; the final completed de facto female sample size was 1,299 (unweighted). The sample of service delivery points (SDPs) included 27 facility interviews, 23 of which were completed, for a response rate of 90.0%
To view the sample errors for the PMA2020 indicators described above, download the full SOI report here. For more information about PMA2020 indicators, including estimate type and base population, click here.
Institute for Population and Reproductive Health at The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Performance Monitoring and Accountability 2020 (PMA2020) Survey Round 3, PMA2016/Niger-R3 (Niamey) Snapshot of Indicators. 2016. Niamey, Niger and Baltimore, Maryland, USA.