SNAPSHOT OF INDICATORS
In Burkina Faso, the Performance Monitoring and Accountability 2020 (PMA2020) survey is designed to create sentinel sites for data collection both at the population-level and among service delivery points (SDPs). Enumeration areas (EAs) selected in Round 1 are generally used for data collection in Rounds 2-4. In Round 5, the sample was refreshed and new EAs were selected from those contiguous to the EAs used in rounds 1-4. Households within the EA are randomly sampled during each round.
PMA2017-18/Burkina Faso Round 5 used a two-stage cluster design with urban-rural strata. The first stage of sampling was a selection of clusters within each sampling stratum using probability proportional to size procedures.
A sample of 83 EAs was drawn from the l'Institut National de la Statistique et de la Démographie (INSD) master sampling frame. In each EA, 35 households and up to three private service delivery points (SDPs) were selected. Up to three public SDPs serving that EA were also selected. Households were systematically selected using the "Random Number Generator" application. Occupants in selected households were enumerated, and eligible women (women of reproductive age, 15-49) were contacted and consented for interviews.
Data collection was conducted between November 2017 and January 2018. The final sample included a total of 2,811 completed household questionnaires (98.5% response rate), 3,556 completed female questionnaires (97.2% response rate) and 130 SDPs (97.7% response rate).
The sample was designed to generate national estimates of all women modern contraceptive prevalence rate (mCPR) with a 3% margin of error and urban/rural estimates at a 3% margin of error.
The tables provide a summary of key family planning indicators at the national level and their breakdown by background characteristics.
Round 1 Sample Design
The PMA2020 survey collects annual data at the national level to allow for the estimation of key indicators to monitor progress in family planning. The resident enumerator (RE), PMA2020’s female data collectors, model enables replication of the surveys twice a year for the first two years, and then annually to track progress of family planning indicators.
For the first two rounds of data collection (PMA2014-15/Burkina Faso), the target sample size was 53 enumeration areas (EAs), which was selected by the Institut Superieur des Sciences de la Population (ISSP) to achieve representativeness at a national scale. The EAs were selected systematically using probability proportional to size within urban/rural strata.
Before the first round of data collection, all households, private service delivery points (SDPs) and key landmarks in each EA were listed and mapped by trained resident enumerators (REs) to create a sampling frame for the second stage of sampling for households and private SDPs. The mapping and listing process took place the first week of data collection in each EA with the help of cartographers and supervisors. Once households had been listed, field supervisors systematically selected 35 households per EA using a random number-generating mobile-phone application. All members of the selected households were enumerated by the interviewers when completing household questionnaires, and from this household roster, all eligible women (aged 15-49) were approached and asked to provide informed consent to participate in the study.
Up to three private SDPs located within each EA were selected from the list of SDPs available in the EA. In addition, three public SDPs, primary health centers, secondary medical centers with or without a surgery units and tertiary regional or national/teaching hospitals serving the selected EA populations were selected.
Weights were adjusted for non-response, and applied to all estimations at the household and individual level in the presented tables.
Round 5 Sample Update
The sample was refreshed for data collection in Round 5. A new sample of 83 EAs was selected by the Institut Superieur des Sciences de la Population (ISSP) to achieve representativeness at a national scale. The EAs were selected systematically using probability proportional to size within urban/rural strata, and whenever possible, were contiguous to an EA used in rounds 3 and 4.
All households, health service delivery points and key landmarks in each EA were listed and mapped by the REs to create a frame for the second stage of the sampling process. Field supervisors randomly selected 35 households and up to 3 private SDPs using a phone-based random number-generating application.
Burkina Faso Round 5 used a two-stage cluster design with urban-rural strata. A sample of 83 enumeration areas (EAs) was drawn from the l'Institut National de la Statistique et de la Démographie (INSD) master sampling frame. In each EA, 35 households and up to three private service delivery points (SDPs) were selected. Up to three public SDPs serving that EA were also selected. Households were systematically selected using the "Random Number Generator" application. Occupants in selected households were enumerated, and eligible women (women of reproductive age, 15-49) were contacted and consented for interviews. Data collection was conducted between November 2017 and January 2018.
PMA2020 uses standardized questionnaires to gather data about households, individual females and health service delivery points that are comparable across program countries and consistent with existing national surveys. Prior to launching the survey in each country, local experts review and modify these questionnaires to ensure all questions are appropriate to each setting. All questionnaires were previously translated into French, the national language of Burkina Faso and translations were reviewed for appropriateness. Three questionnaires were used to collect PMA2017/Burkina Faso-R5 survey data: the household questionnaire, the female questionnaire and the service delivery point questionnaire.
The household, female and service delivery point questionnaires were based on model surveys designed by PMA2020 staff at the Bill & Melinda Gates Institute for Population and Reproductive Health of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, the Institut Supérieur des Sciences de la Population (ISSP) of the University of Ouagadougou and fieldwork materials of the Burkina Faso Demographic and Health Survey (DHS).
All PMA2020 questionnaires are administered using Open Data Kit (ODK) software and Android smartphones. Given that PMA2020 questionnaires are typically administered in local languages (French not included), supervisors and Resident Enumerators (REs) worked in small teams during training prior to Round 5 data collection to review standard translations orally in the local languages typically used by REs in their EAs to administer surveys. The interviews were conducted in the local language, or French in a few cases when the respondent was not comfortable with the local language, the RE did not speak the maternal language of the respondent, or the respondent was more comfortable in French. REs in each enumeration area administered the household and female questionnaires in the selected households. Field supervisors administered the SDP questionnaire among public SDPs.
The household questionnaire gathers basic information about the household, such as ownership of livestock and durable goods, as well as characteristics of the dwelling unit, including wall, floor and roof materials, water sources, and sanitation facilities. This information is used to construct a wealth index.
The first section of the household questionnaire, the household roster, lists basic demographic information about all usual members of the household and visitors who stayed with the household the night before the interview. This roster is used to identify eligible respondents for the female questionnaire. In addition to the roster, the household questionnaire also gathers data that are used to measure key water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) indicators, including regular sources and uses of WASH facilities used and prevalence of open defecation by household members.
The female questionnaire is used to collect information from all women age 15 to 49 who were listed on the household roster at selected households. The female questionnaire gathers specific information on: education; fertility and fertility preferences; family planning access, choice and use; quality of family planning services; and exposure to family planning messaging in the media.
The SDP questionnaire collected information about the provision and quality of reproductive health services and products, integration of health services, and water and sanitation within the SDP.
The PMA2020 Burkina Faso-R5 fieldwork training started in November 2017 with a five-day training for the new resident enumerators (REs) followed by a five-day refresher training of all continuing staff on the project, including supervisors and returning REs. Institut Supérieur des Sciences de la Population (ISSP) PMA2020 project staff led both the new and refresher trainings, with limited remote support from the PMA2020 team from the Bill & Melinda Gates Institute for Population and Reproductive Health of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. The training was held in Ouagadougou, at ISSP, housed within the University of Ouagadougou.
The training focused on a handful of newly-added questions from the global annual questionnaire review process. The training also focused on a review of the service delivery point (SDP) questionnaire and review of survey content and protocol.
Throughout the two-week training, REs and supervisors were evaluated based on their performance on several written and phone-based assessments, mock field exercises and class participation. The RE training sessions were conducted primarily in English, whereas small group sessions were all conducted in the local languages predominantly spoken in the selected EAs.
Supervisors received additional training prior to and after the RE training to further strengthen their supervisory skills, including instruction on conducting re-interviews, carrying out random spot checks, and engaging communities through local leaders.
Data Collection & Processing
Data collection was conducted between November 2017 and January 2018. Unlike traditional paper-and-pencil surveys, PMA2020 uses Open Data Kit (ODK) Collect, an open-source software application, to collect data on mobile phones. All the questionnaires were programmed using this software and installed onto all project smartphones. The ODK questionnaire forms are programmed with automatic skip-patterns and built-in response constraints to reduce data entry errors.
The ODK application enabled REs and supervisors to collect and transfer survey data to a central ODK Aggregate cloud server. This instantaneous aggregation of data also allowed for concurrent data processing and course corrections while PMA2020 was still active in the field. Throughout data collection, central staff at ISSP in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso and the data manager at the Gates Institute at Johns Hopkins in Baltimore, Maryland routinely monitored the incoming data and notified field staff of any potential errors, missing data or problems found with form submissions on the central server.
The use of mobile phones combined data collection and data entry into one step; therefore, data entry was completed when the last interview form was uploaded at the end of data collection in January 2018.
Once all data were on the server, data analysts cleaned and de-identified the data, applied survey weights and prepared the final data set for analysis using Stata® version 14 software.
The table below shows response rates for household and female respondents by residence (rural/urban) for PMA2017/Burkina Round 5. A total of 2,906 households were selected for the PMA2017 survey; 2,854 households were found to be occupied at the time of the fieldwork. 98.5% (2,811) of the occupied households consented to and completed a household-level interview. The response rate for the household level was higher in the rural (99.6%) relative to the urban (97.4%) enumeration areas (EAs).
In the occupied households that provided an interview, a total of 3,591 eligible women aged 15 to 49 years were identified. Overall, 97.8% of the eligible women were available and consented to and completed the interview. The female response rate was higher in the rural (98.3%) relative to the urban (97.2%) EAs. Only de facto females are included in the PMA analyses; the final completed de facto female sample size was 3,512 (unweighted).
The final service delivery point (SDP) sample included 133 facility interviews, of which 130 were completed, for a response rate of 97.7%.
Weights were adjusted for non-response at the household and individual levels and applied to all household and individual estimates in this report. SDP estimates are not weighted.
Institut Supérieur des Sciences de la Population, Université Joseph Ki-Zerbo, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, and The Bill & Melinda Gates Institute for Population and Reproductive Health at The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Performance Monitoring and Accountability 2020 (PMA2020) Survey Round 5, PMA2017/Burkina Faso-R5 Snapshot of Indicators. 2017. Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso and Baltimore, Maryland, USA.