SNAPSHOT OF INDICATORS
PMA2020 Snapshot of Indicators (SOIs) are online tables that provide a summary of key family planning indicators and their breakdown by background characteristics (age, marital status, parity, education, residence, wealth, region). SOI tables include information on sample design, questionnaires, data processing, response rates and sample error estimates.
Summary of the sample design for PMA2016/Burkina Faso:
In Burkina Faso, the Performance Monitoring and Accountability 2020 (PMA2020) survey is designed to create sentinel sites for data collection both at the population-level and among service delivery points (SDPs). Enumeratieon areas (EAs) selected in Round 1 are generally used for data collection in Rounds 2-4. Households within the EA are randomly sampled during each round; however the EA is consistent across rounds. For clarity, the original Round 1 sample design summary is provided below.
PMA2020 uses a two-stage cluster design with residential area (urban and rural) as strata. The first stage of sampling was a selection of clusters within each sampling stratum using probability proportional to size procedures. The sample was designed to generate national estimates of all women modern contraceptive prevalence rate (mCPR) with a less than 3% margin of error and urban/rural estimates at less than 5% margin of error.
This table provides a summary of key family planning indicators at the national level and their breakdown by background characteristics. Disaggregation by urban/rural distinction was done when possible.
Round 1 Sample Design
The PMA2020 survey collects data annually to allow for the estimation of key indicators to monitor progress in family planning. The resident enumerator (RE) model enables replication of the surveys twice a year for the first two years, and annually each year after that, to track progress.
Survey resources allowed targeting a sample size of 53 enumeration areas (EAs) and an anticipated sample size of 1,855 households. During Round 1, a total of 53 EAs were sampled throughout all regions in Burkina Faso, creating representative estimates at both the national and urban/rural level. The primary sampling units for the survey were the EAs, created during the 2006 Population and Housing Census. The EAs were selected systematically with probability proportional to size within urban/rural strata. Institut Supérieur des Sciences de la Population (ISSP) drew the sample and provided the selection probabilities with support from L'Institut national de la statistique et de la démographie (INSD).
In each selected EA, field supervisors randomly selected up to three private service delivery points (SDPs) to be interviewed by a resident enumerator using the SDP questionnaire. The field supervisors themselves administered the SDP questionnaires at an additional three public SDPs that serve each EA; the lowest, second-lowest, and third-lowest level public health SDPs designated to serve each EA.
Round 3 Sample Update
In Round 3, an additional 30 EAs were included in the sample to improve the precision of estimates. Fifteen new rural and 15 new urban EAs were selected with probability proportional to size within urban and rural strata by ISSP. All EAs were re-listed in Round 3 to update the household and SDP sample frame for the original 53 EAs and create the sampling frames for the additional 30 EAs. Before data collection began at the household level, all households and key landmarks in each EA were listed and mapped by trained REs to create a sampling frame for the second stage of the sampling process.
Field supervisors randomly selected 35 households from the Round 3 household listing. A household roster was completed and all eligible women age 15-49 in selected households were approached and asked to provide informed consent to participate in the study.
The majority of SDPs are repeated in each round, forming a panel survey. If an EA had more than three private SDPs identified during the listing process, then three private SDPs are randomly selected in each round.
PMA2020 uses standardized questionnaires to gather data about households, individual females and health SDPs that are comparable across program countries and consistent with existing national surveys. Prior to launching the survey in each country, local experts review and modify these questionnaires to ensure all questions are appropriate to each setting. All questionnaires were previously translated into French, the national language of Burkina Faso and translations were reviewed for appropriateness.
The household questionnaire, the female questionnaire and the SDP questionnaire were based on model surveys designed by PMA2020 staff at the Bill & Melinda Gates Institute for Population and Reproductive Health of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, the Institut Supérieur des Sciences de la Population (ISSP) of the University of Ouagadougou, and fieldwork materials of the Burkina Faso Demographic and Health Survey (DHS).
All PMA2020 questionnaires are administered using Open Data Kit (ODK) software and Android smartphones. Given that PMA2020 questionnaires are typically administered in local languages (French not included), supervisors and REs worked in small teams during training prior to data collection to determine standard translations orally in all local languages spoken by the REs. The interviews were conducted in the local language, or French in a few cases when the respondent was not comfortable with the local language, the RE did not speak the maternal language of the respondent, or the respondent was more comfortable in French. Female resident enumerators in each EA administered the household and female questionnaires in the selected households.
The household questionnaire gathers basic information about the household, such as ownership of durable goods, as well as characteristics of the dwelling unit, including wall, floor, and roof material, water sources and sanitation facilities. This information is used to construct a wealth quintile.
The first section of the household questionnaire, the household roster, lists basic demographic information about all usual members of the household and visitors who stayed with the household the night before the interview. This roster is used to identify eligible respondents for the female questionnaire. In addition to the roster, the household questionnaire also gathers data that are used to measure key water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) indicators, including regular sources and uses of WASH facilities and prevalence of open defecation by household members.
The female questionnaire is used to collect information from all women age 15 to 49 who were listed on the household roster at selected households. The female questionnaire gathers specific information on education; fertility and fertility preferences; family planning access, choice and use; quality of family planning services; exposure to family planning messaging in the media; and the burden of collection water on women.
The SDP questionnaire is used to collect information about the provision and quality of reproductive health services and products, integration of health services, and water and sanitation within the SDP.
The PMA2020/Burkina Faso Round 3 fieldwork training started on February 10, 2016 with a 10-day training for the 30 new REs and three supervisors followed by a 4-day refresher training of all the continuing staff on the project -- eight field supervisors, three central staff and 83 total REs. PMA2020 staff from the Bill & Melinda Gates Institute for Population and Reproductive Health of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health led the training, with support from the project staff at Institut Supérieur des Sciences de la Population (ISSP) of the University of Ouagadougou. The training was held in Ouagadougou, at the ISSP headquarters at the University of Ouagadougou.
As this was a refresher training for continuing staff, the training focused on a handful of newly added questions to the core household, female and service delivery questionnaires compared to previous rounds, as well as reviewed survey protocol and an extensive review on how to conduct mapping and listing.
Throughout the training, REs and supervisors were evaluated based on their performance on phone-based assessments, practical field exercises for the SDP survey and class participation. The training included a half-day of practical exercises, during which participants entered a practice enumeration area (EA) to conduct SDP interviews. The training was conducted primarily in French, but some small group sessions were conducted in all of the local languages spoken by the REs and their supervisors.
The three new supervisors received additional training prior to and after the RE training to further strengthen their supervision skills, including instruction on conducting re-interviews, carrying out random spot checks, and dealing with the local/community leaders and engaging the communities.
Data Collection & Processing
Data collection was conducted between March and May 2016. Unlike traditional paper-and-pencil surveys, PMA2020 uses Open Data Kit (ODK) Collect, an open-source software application, to collect data on mobile phones. All the questionnaires were programmed using this software and installed onto all project smartphones. The ODK questionnaire forms are programmed with automatic skip-patterns and built-in response constraints to reduce data entry errors.
The ODK application enabled REs and supervisors to collect and transfer survey data to a central ODK Aggregate cloud server. This instantaneous aggregation of data also allowed for concurrent data processing and course corrections while PMA2020 was still active in the field. Throughout data collection, central staff at ISSP in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso and the data manager at the Gates Institute at Johns Hopkins in Baltimore, Maryland routinely monitored the incoming data and notified field staff of any potential errors, missing data or problems found with form submissions on the central server. The use of mobile phones combined data collection and data entry into one step; therefore, data entry was completed when the last interview form was uploaded at the end of data collection in May.
Once all data were on the server, data analysts cleaned and de-identified the data, applied survey weights, and prepared the final data set for analysis using Stata® version 14 software. Data analysis for the national dissemination of preliminary findings was conducted between May and June 2016. There was a national dissemination workshop for Round 3 results at ISSP in Ougadougou, Burkina Faso in July of 2016 as part of ISSP’s 25th anniversary celebrations.
This table shows response rates for household and female respondents by residence (rural/urban) for PMA2016/Burkina Round 3. A total of 2,906 households were selected for the PMA2016 survey; 2,864 households were found to be occupied at the time of the fieldwork. 97.9% (2,803) of the occupied households consented to a household-level interview. The response rate for the household level was higher in the rural (99.2%) relative to the urban (96.5%) enumeration areas (EAs).
In the occupied households that provided an interview, a total of 3,375 eligible women aged 15 to 49 years were identified. Overall, 96.6% of the eligible women were available and consented to the interview. The female response rate was higher in the rural (97.6%) relative to the urban (95.7%) EAs. Only de facto females are included in the PMA analyses; the final completed de facto female sample size was 3,261 (unweighted).
The final service delivery point (SDP) sample included 134 facility interviews, of which 132 were completed, for a response rate of 98.5%.
Weights were adjusted for non-response at the household and individual levels and applied to all household and individual estimates in this report. SDP estimates are not weighted.
To view the sample errors for the PMA2020 indicators described above, download the full SOI report here. For more information about PMA2020 indicators, including estimate type and base population, click here.
Institut Supérieur des Sciences de la Population, Université Joseph Ki-Zerbo, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, and The Bill & Melinda Gates Institute for Population and Reproductive Health at The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Performance Monitoring and Accountability 2020 (PMA2020) Survey Round 3, PMA2016/Burkina Faso-R3 Snapshot of Indicators. 2016. Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso and Baltimore, Maryland, USA.