Water, Sanitation, & Hygiene

Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) indicators include the number of water sources, population with dedicated hand washing facility in the household, and percent of population using open defecation as a main and regular source. These data were collected by PMA2020 and compiled into WASH briefs.

For more on the studies on Water, Sanitation and Hygiene:
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View Survey Results Summary

Survey Results Summaries

PMA uses innovative mobile technology to support low-cost, rapid-turnaround surveys monitoring key health and development indicators. Surveys are completed by resident enumerators, uploaded to a central server via a mobile data network, cleaned and analyzed. Results are disseminated shortly after.

Country Survey Results Brief Indicators Report
Ethiopia PMA2020, Round 5, 2017 English
Ethiopia PMA2020, Round 3, 2015 English
Ethiopia PMA2020, Round 1, 2014 English
Ghana PMA2020, Round 5, 2016 English
Ghana PMA2020, Round 1, 2013 English
India PMA2020, Round 4, 2018 English Hindi
India PMA2020, Round 2, 2017 English Hindi
India PMA2020, Round 1, 2016 English Hindi
Indonesia PMA2020, Round 2, 2016 English
Indonesia PMA2020, Round 1, 2015 English

Research in Water, Sanitation, & Hygiene


of household residents in Niamey, Niger, can access a dedicated hand washing station


PMA has a variety of publications including briefs, reports and overview documents  that may be used to inform health policy and programming decisions. Listed below are publications authored by PMA faculty, students, staff, and partners that draw upon PMA data. 

For a full list of publications that use PMA data, please visit our Google Scholars page.

Click here to view our survey results summaries.