SNAPSHOT OF INDICATORS
PMA2020 Snapshot of Indicators (SOIs) are online tables that provide a summary of key family planning indicators and their breakdown by background characteristics (age, marital status, parity, education, residence, wealth, region). SOI tables include information on sample design, questionnaires, data processing, response rates and sample error estimates.
Summary of the sample design for PMA2016/Indonesia:
In Indonesia, the Performance Monitoring for Accountability 2020 (PMA2020) survey is designed to create sentinel sites for data collection both at the population-level and among service delivery points (SDPs). The second round of data collection for PMA2020 in Indonesia (2016) used a multi-stage cluster design with province at the first and enumeration areas (EAs) at the second stage. The number of EAs determined to provide a national estimate of modern contraceptive prevalence with 1.5% margin of error and 2.0% for urban-rural strata, was 372 EAs. The Indonesian Central Bureau of Statistics (BPS) drew a sample of 372 EAs from its master sampling frame (in round 1) to accommodate an oversample for one province (South Sulawesi with 60 EAs) and one district (Makassar, with 37 EAs). In each EA, the survey team listed and mapped households and public and private health facilities and randomly selected 35 households and up to 3 private service delivery points.
Each Resident Enumerator, PMA’s female data collectors, contacted 35 households for an interview, enumerated all household occupants, and interviewed all consenting, eligible females age 15 to 49 in each household. Field supervisors interviewed three levels of public health facilities assigned to provide services to residents of each of the selected EAs residents. The final national sample included 12,107 households, 10,565 females and 945 health facilities (95.1%, 94.5% and 95.3% response rates, respectively). Data collection was conducted between October 2016 and January 2017.
The table below provides a summary of key family planning indicators at the national level and their breakdown by background characteristics.
Round 1 Sample Design
The PMA2020 survey collects data annually to allow for the estimation of key indicators to monitor progress in family planning. The resident enumerator (RE) model enables replication of the surveys twice a year for the first two years, and annually each year after that, to track progress.
Survey resources allowed targeting a sample size of 372 enumeration areas (EAs), which were selected by the Indonesian Central Bureau of Statistics (BPS) to be representative at the national level (including urban and rural areas) to accommodate an oversample for one province (South Sulawesi with 60 EAs) and one district (Makassar, with 37 EAs). In each EA, the survey team listed and mapped households and public and private health facilities and randomly selected 35 households and up to three private service delivery points. Each resident enumerator contacted 35 households for an interview, enumerated all household occupants, and interviewed all consenting, eligible females age 15 to 49 in each household. Field supervisors interviewed three levels of public health facilities assigned to provide services to residents of each of the selected EAs residents. The final national sample included 11,663 households, 10,301 females and 936 health facilities. Data collection was conducted between June and August 2015. The enumeration areas were selected systematically with probability proportional to the size and urban or rural stratification.
The sample sizes for the South Sulawesi province and the Makassar district were designed to provide regional estimates. BPS provided the EA selection probabilities for the PMA2020 sampled clusters for constructing weights. Prior to data collection, all households, health SDPs and key landmarks in each EA were listed and mapped by the REs to create a frame for the second stage of the sampling process. This mapping and listing process took place in the first two weeks of data collection in each EA. Once listed, field supervisors systematically selected 35 households in each EA using a random number-generating mobile-phone application. All occupants in selected households were enumerated and from this list, all eligible women were approached and asked to give informed consent (and assent if aged 15-17 years) to participate in the study. Up to three private SDPs within each EA boundary were randomly selected from the listing. In addition, three public health SDPs—e.g. health center, village health post, delivery post, district hospital designated to serve the EA population—were selected. Weights were adjusted for non-response at the household and individual levels and applied to all household and individual estimates in this report.
Round 2 Sample Update
Data collection for Round 2 (2016) continued in the original 372 EAs. As Round 2 was approximately six months after the original mapping and listing activity, mapping and listing was not repeated in Round 2. The Round 1 household list was used for selection of a new sample of 35 households in each EA.
All occupants in selected households were enumerated and from this list, all eligible women age 15-49 were approached and asked to give informed consent (and assent if aged 15-17 years) to participate in the study.
Households with eligible females of reproductive age (15-49 years) were contacted and consented for interviews. The final national sample included 12,107 households, 10,565 females and 945 health facilities (95.1%, 94.5% and 95.3% response rates, respectively). Data collection was conducted between October 2016 and January 2017.
PMA2020 uses standardized questionnaires to gather data about households, individual females and health facilities that are comparable across program countries and consistent with existing national surveys. Prior to launching the survey in each country, local experts review and modify these questionnaires to ensure all questions are appropriate to each setting. Three questionnaires were used to collect data from the PMA2016/Indonesia-R2 survey: the household questionnaire, the female questionnaire and the service delivery point questionnaire.
All PMA2020 questionnaires are administered using Open Data Kit (ODK) software and Android smartphones. The PMA2016/Indonesia-R2 questionnaires were in English and Bahasa Indonesian. The questionnaires were translated using available translations from similar population surveys and experts in translation. The interviews were conducted in the local language, or English in a few cases when the respondent was not comfortable with the local language. Female resident enumerators in each enumeration area administered the household and female questionnaires in the selected households.
The household questionnaire gathers basic information about the household, such as ownership of livestock and durable goods, as well as characteristics of the dwelling unit, including wall, floor and roof materials, water sources, and sanitation facilities. This information is used to construct a wealth quintile index.
The first section of the household questionnaire, the household roster, lists basic demographic information about all usual members of the household and visitors who stayed with the household the night before the interview. This roster is used to identify eligible respondents for the female questionnaire. In addition to the roster, the household questionnaire also gathers data that are used to measure key water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) indicators, including regular sources and uses of WASH facilities used and prevalence of open defecation by household members.
The female questionnaire is used to collect information from all women age 15 to 49 who were listed on the household roster at selected households. The female questionnaire gathers specific information on: education; fertility and fertility preferences; family planning access, choice and use; quality of family planning services; and exposure to family planning messaging in the media.
The SDP questionnaire collected information about the provision and quality of reproductive health services and products, integration of health services, and water and sanitation within the SDP.
The PMA2016/Indonesia-R2 fieldwork training started with a two-week training of master trainers. PMA2020 staff from the Bill & Melinda Gates Institute for Population and Reproductive Health of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health led the training. These master trainers then became the trainers for three supervisor-training sessions. The final training with resident enumerator (RE) was conducted in Spring 2016 in east and central Indonesia; a total of 372 REs received training.
All training participants were given comprehensive instruction on how to complete the household, female, and SDP questionnaires. In addition to PMA2020 survey training, all participants received training on contraceptive methods by an Indonesian obstetrician/gynecologist.
Throughout the trainings, participants were evaluated based on their performance on several written and phone-based assessments, mock field exercises and class participation. As all questionnaires were completed on project smartphones, the training also familiarized participants with Open Data Kit and smartphone use in general. Trainings included three days of field exercises, during which participants entered a mock enumeration area to practice listing, mapping and conducting household, female and SDP interviews; recording all responses on their project phones; and submitting to a practice cloud server—a centralized data storage system. The resident enumerator trainings were conducted primarily in Bahasa Indonesian, whereas some small group sessions were conducted in English.
Supervisors received additional training on how to oversee fieldwork and complete household re-interviews used to carry out random spot-checks in 10 percent of the households interviewed by REs.
Data Collection & Processing
Data collection was conducted between October 2016 and January 2017. Unlike traditional paper-and-pencil surveys, PMA2020 uses Open Data Kit Collect, an open-source software application, to collect data on mobile phones. All the questionnaires were programmed using this software and installed onto all project smartphones. The Open Data Kit questionnaire forms are programmed with automatic skip-patterns and built-in response constraints to reduce data entry errors.
The ODK application enabled REs and supervisors to collect and transfer survey data to a central ODK Aggregate cloud server. This instantaneous aggregation of data also allowed for concurrent data processing and course corrections while PMA2020 was still active in the field. Throughout data collection, the central staff at BkkBN and the data manager at Gates Institute at Johns Hopkins in Baltimore, Maryland routinely monitored the incoming data and notified field staff of any potential errors, missing data or problems found with form submissions on the central server.
The use of mobile phones combined data collection and data entry into one step; therefore, data entry was completed when the last interview form was uploaded at the end of data collection in January.
Once all data were on the server, data analysts cleaned and de-identified the data, applied survey weights and prepared the final data set for analysis using Stata® version 12 software.
This table shows response rates for household and female respondents by residence (rural/urban) for PMA2016/Indonesia-R2. A total of 13,020 households were selected for the PMA2016 survey; 12,731 households were found to be occupied at the time of the fieldwork. 95.1% (12,107) of the occupied households consented to a household-level interview. The response rate for the household level was higher in the rural (97.3%) relative to the urban (93.2%) enumeration areas (EAs).
During this round of data collection, 992 service delivery points were identified, of which 945 completed and interview, for a response rate of 95.3%.
Weights were adjusted for non-response at the household and individual levels and applied to all household and individual estimates in this report. SDP estimates are not weighted.
National Population and Family Planning Board of Indonesia (BkkbN), Universitas Gadjah Mada (UGM), Universitas Hasanuddin (UNHAS), Universitas Sumatera Utara (USU) and The Bill & Melinda Gates Institute for Population and Reproductive Health at The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Performance Monitoring and Accountability 2020 (PMA2020) Survey Round 2, PMA2016/Indonesia-R2 Snapshot of Indicators. 2016. Indonesia and Baltimore, Maryland, USA.